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Insulin resistance occurs when cells in your body don't respond well to insulin, leading to elevated blood sugar levels. Over time, this can strain your pancreas, cause higher insulin production, and may lead to type 2 diabetes and associated health issues. Understanding insulin resistance is crucial in the health and fitness world because it can significantly impact your body's ability to utilise glucose for energy, affecting fat loss, muscle building, and overall metabolic health. Managing insulin levels is key to optimising body composition and performance. To address insulin resistance, focus on a largely unprocessed diet rich in fibre, regular physical activity, and maintain a healthy weight. Strategies such as reducing refined carb intake and incorporating resistance training can improve your body's insulin sensitivity, enhancing glucose metabolism and energy utilisation.

When it comes to the research, the sad reality is that most food research is sponsored, and even conducted sometimes, by Big Food corporations - the Nestles, Coca Colas etc. of the world. Do not expect them to publish research that shows eating their foods, or similar foods causes negative health effects. We need to be smarter and analyse the the root causes of insulin resistance, and then look for ways to prevent and/or combat those root causes, in order to prevent/reverse insulin resistance.

Root Causes:

  • Obesity and Ectopic Fat Accumulation: Central obesity (visceral fat) and ectopic lipid accumulation in the liver and skeletal muscle impair insulin signalling, leading to reduced glucose uptake by muscle and decreased hepatic (liver) glycogen synthesis. Excess abdominal adipose tissue releases increased amounts of free fatty acids, which directly affect insulin signalling pathways (Johnson & Olefsky, 2013). Obesity, Especially Visceral Fat: Excess adiposity, particularly visceral fat, is closely linked to the development of insulin resistance. Visceral fat releases pro-inflammatory cytokines and FFAs, which contribute to systemic insulin resistance (Lewis et al., 2002).

  • Inflammation: Chronic inflammation is closely linked to insulin resistance. Pro-inflammatory cytokines can cause insulin resistance in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver by inhibiting insulin signal transduction. Sources of cytokines include not only the insulin target tissues themselves but also activated tissue resident macrophages (de Luca & Olefsky, 2008). Chronic inflammation, particularly in adipose tissue, is a significant contributor to insulin resistance. Inflammatory markers and cytokines impair insulin signalling pathways, leading to reduced insulin sensitivity (Xu et al., 2003).

  • Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Mitochondrial dysfunction in muscle and liver affects the cellular energy balance and has been associated with insulin resistance. It leads to decreased oxidative phosphorylation activity, contributing to reduced insulin sensitivity and impaired glucose metabolism (Petersen et al., 2003).​

  • Lipid Metabolism: Dysregulated lipid metabolism, including elevated free fatty acids (FFAs), contributes to insulin resistance by interfering with insulin signaling and promoting lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues such as liver and muscle. This ectopic lipid accumulation impairs insulin's ability to stimulate glucose uptake (Boden, 2001).

  • Genetic Factors: Genetic predispositions can influence an individual's susceptibility to insulin resistance, affecting the function of insulin receptors, glucose transporters, and other key components of the insulin signalling pathway.

  • Lifestyle Factors: Sedentary lifestyle, poor diet (especially diets high in refined carbohydrates), and inadequate physical activity contribute to the development and exacerbation of insulin resistance.

Preventative Measures:


  • Focus on a diet rich in fibre and low in processed foods.

  • Engage in regular aerobic and resistance exercises.

  • Manage stress through mindfulness, yoga, or meditation.

  • Ensure quality sleep, aiming for 7-9 hours per night.

  • Monitor blood glucose and body weight regularly.


Leptin resistance occurs when the body does not respond appropriately to leptin, a hormone produced by fat cells that is crucial for regulating hunger and energy balance. This hormone signals to the brain that enough energy is stored in fat cells, thus reducing appetite and promoting energy expenditure. When leptin signals are disregarded, it can lead to uncontrolled hunger, increased food intake, and ultimately, weight gain. Recognising leptin resistance is essential in the realm of health and fitness, as it directly impacts weight management, appetite control, and metabolic efficiency. Addressing leptin resistance involves focusing on diet quality, improving sleep patterns, managing stress, and incorporating regular physical activity, which can help restore leptin sensitivity and promote a balanced energy state.

Root Causes:

  • Obesity: An RCT investigated the effects of resistance training on serum leptin and adiponectin levels in elderly males, finding that exercise led to diminished leptin levels in an intensity-dependent manner, suggesting exercise can modulate leptin sensitivity affected by obesity (Fatouros et al., 2005).

  • Inflammation: In research examining leptin resistance, it was demonstrated that leptin resistance is associated with hypothalamic leptin receptor mRNA and protein downregulation, indicating that chronic inflammation can impair leptin receptor signaling (Martin et al., 2000).

  • High Fat Diet: A study showed that aerobic exercise influences serum leptin and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes, highlighting how lifestyle interventions, in contrast to high-fat diets, can counteract leptin resistance and improve metabolic health (Eizadi et al., 2013).

  • Physical Inactivity: An RCT on the impact of resistance training on serum leptin in sedentary overweight females supports the notion that physical inactivity exacerbates leptin resistance, as the study found significant changes in serum leptin levels following an exercise regimen, indicating an improvement in leptin sensitivity (Shangani et al., 2013).

Preventative Measures:

  • Adopt a Nutrient-Dense Diet: Emphasise whole foods, particularly those rich in fibre, to improve overall hormonal balance and reduce inflammation.

  • Increase Physical Activity: Regular exercise, including both aerobic and resistance training, can enhance leptin sensitivity and assist in maintaining a healthy weight.

  • Improve Sleep Quality: Ensuring adequate and quality sleep can normalise leptin levels and improve its regulatory function on appetite and metabolism.

  • Manage Stress: Techniques such as meditation, yoga, or mindfulness can reduce stress and its negative impact on leptin and overall metabolic health.

  • Monitor Health Indicators: Regular check-ups that include measuring body fat and inflammatory markers can help in early detection and management of leptin resistance.

Addressing leptin resistance is crucial for maintaining healthy body weight, optimising metabolic health, and enhancing the effectiveness of fitness regimens. By implementing these strategies, individuals can improve leptin sensitivity, promoting better appetite control and energy utilisation.


Low testosterone, also known as hypogonadism in men, is a condition characterised by insufficient levels of the hormone testosterone, which plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty, and is crucial for maintaining muscle mass, bone density, and sex drive. Low testosterone levels can be genetic, but more often, it's lifestyle/diet/obesity-induced - meaning there is something that can be done about it before the medical intervention stage!


Recognising low testosterone is vital because it not only affects physical health, including muscle strength and fat distribution, but also has implications for mental health, such as mood and energy levels. Managing low testosterone involves a comprehensive approach that includes lifestyle modifications, dietary adjustments, and possibly medical intervention, aiming to enhance overall well-being and hormonal balance.

Root Causes:

  • Obesity: Excess body fat, particularly visceral fat, can disrupt hormone balance and lower testosterone levels.

  • Metabolic Disorders: Conditions like type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome are linked to reduced testosterone levels.

  • Chronic Stress: High levels of the stress hormone cortisol can negatively affect testosterone production.

  • Poor Lifestyle Choices: Lack of physical activity, unhealthy diet, excessive alcohol consumption, and insufficient sleep can all contribute to lower testosterone levels.

  • Aging: Natural declines in testosterone levels occur with age, although this is largely lifestyle/diet-dependant.

Preventative Measures:

  • Maintain a Healthy Weight: Reducing body fat, especially abdominal fat, can help improve testosterone levels.

  • Adopt a Balanced Diet: Consuming a diet rich in whole foods, healthy fats, and lean proteins can support hormonal health.

  • Regular Exercise: Strength training and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) are particularly effective at boosting testosterone.

  • Manage Stress: Practicing stress-reduction techniques like meditation, deep breathing, or yoga can lower cortisol levels and support testosterone production.

  • Prioritize Sleep: Quality sleep is crucial for hormonal balance. Aim for 7-9 hours of sleep per night.

  • Avoid Excessive Alcohol and Tobacco Use: Limiting alcohol and avoiding tobacco can help maintain healthy testosterone levels.

Addressing low testosterone requires a multifaceted approach focused on lifestyle and dietary changes that promote hormonal balance and health. For individuals experiencing significant symptoms or those who suspect they have low testosterone, consulting with a healthcare provider for a proper diagnosis and potential treatment options is essential.

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